印尼游记3-日惹城外的 Candi Plaosan

我们原要去参观日惹17公里外的著名古迹普兰巴兰神庙(Prambanan〕,可是到了入门处买票时,大弟小妹却因不忿我们得付比本地人多十二倍的门票(外国人门票是USD11,约IDR110,000,而本地人只收IDR9,000〕,加上被告知限制游人靠近神庙建筑群而决定过门不入。

最后司机大叔Achfas特别驾车兜了古迹区一圈让我们远处观望普兰巴兰神庙(Prambanan) 和Candi Sewu,算是弥补我这个印度文化迷错过了普兰巴兰的遗憾。

建于9世纪的普兰巴兰神庙

Candi Prambanan from far


建造于9世纪的普兰巴兰是爪哇现存最大的印度教庙宇,古迹区里共有250座大小寺庙,同时也是世界文化遗产之一,不过和婆罗浮屠的名气与柬埔寨吴哥窟的规模比较,略逊一筹。

普兰巴南以三座祭祀印度教三大主神的雄伟庙宇为中心,它的建筑有很明显的特征,其形状高瘦,模样儿象半截插入地面的玉蜀黍(在某些角度看来,吉隆坡的双子塔也有点像Prambanan神庙〕。

可惜2006年日惹的一场大地震,破坏了不少神庙,目前修复人员正在抢修中,因此游人只能在外围欣赏神庙上漂亮石雕。

与婆罗浮屠同时期建造的Candi Plaosan

Candi Plaosan from Side View
Candi Plaosan Lor from center court yard, in front is the north side gate

因为没有参观普兰巴南而选择了这地区的其他千年古庙,没想到Candi Plaosan 却成了我们这个行程中的另一个惊喜。

Plaosan 寺就在普兰巴兰–Candi Sewu以北1公里处,是 Sanjaya皇朝的 Sri Maharaja Rakai Pikatan 在9世纪(825-850年)为他的皇后 Pramudhawardhani 建造的寺庙。此皇帝也同时建造了婆罗浮屠和Candi Sewu。

Candi Plaosan,Candi Sewu 和 Prambanan 是以北到南成直线的三个寺庙。

这个结合了印度教和佛教独特风格的寺庙建筑群蛮庞大复杂的,Plaosan 建筑群分为2组,即 Candi Plaosan Lor (北寺) 和 Candi Plaosan Kidul (南寺),中间由一条马路相隔。

北寺比较著名,游客也较多, 入门票是IDR5000。

Candi Plaosan from front view
2 Storey Candi Plaosan Lor from front view

由于这寺庙不是主要的旅游景点,也不见有其他游客,有点寥寂。顶着炎热的艳阳,我们把它据为己有,听管理员慢慢向我们讲解这个寺庙的历史故事。

Plaosan Lor 北寺建筑群周长 460m乘290m,中间有两座漂亮独特的两层高大庙 ,也常被称为双寺庙,其四方型的外围原有116 座小佛塔(Stupas)和 58 座四方型的寺庙 (Prasadas)

The twin Plaosan Lor temples, seperated by a wall
The "forgotten" temple, nobody come in this sunny day, it is waiting in loneliness

可惜这些围绕在四周数以百计的佛塔寺庙却在地震下遭受严重的损坏而倒塌了,现在一眼看去,辽阔的广场上尽是数不清的乱石堆。

Figure that showed the Candi Plaosan Lor's Twin Temples
Figure that showed the Candi Plaosan Lor's Twin Temples Plan
There should be 116 bell shape stupas
There should be 116 bell shape stupas
One of the pradasans at the corner
One of the pradasans at the corner, have entrance steps
Roll of Prasadas at the center court yard
Roll of re-constructed Prasadas at the center court yard. According to plan, the complex should have a total of 54 square prasadas. But less than 10 is re-constructed.

双寺庙各有一个 出入口,大门与及一对守护门神Dwarapala。双寺庙间也有一个相似的出入口。

Plaosan Lor's Gate
Plaosan Lor's Gate
The guardian statues
A pair of guardian statues, Dwarapala

双寺庙里各有三个间隔的石室,每个石室都有一个祭坛,祭坛中间有一个铜菩萨 Bodhisattva (不见了)和两石雕像(包括文殊菩萨 Manjushri, 弥勒佛 Maitreya, 和Padmasambhara〕。

这些菩萨佛像都是半坐着的, 盘起左脚,右脚则放在石墩上。

石室的三边墙另有浮雕,这一些,都是其它庙宇所没有的。不过室内很荫暗,难以辨认墙上浮雕的菩萨佛像。

In the middle of each side wall of the center chamber is a niche decorated with the kala-makara art motif
In the middle of each side wall of the center chamber is a niche decorated with the kala-makara art motif
Each vestibule niche formerly contained the image of a richly decorated Bodhisattva, seated with legs crossed, with the right hand in the vara-mudra (bestowing charity); the outer edge of each image’s stone backing is decorated with flames.
Each vestibule niche formerly contained the image of a richly decorated Bodhisattva, seated with legs crossed, with the right hand in the vara-mudra (bestowing charity); the outer edge of each image’s stone backing is decorated with flames.
The central figures of each triad was made out of valuable metals and disappeared into the crucible at some point during the rise of Islam on Java
The central figures of each triad was made out of valuable metals and disappeared into the crucible at some point during the rise of Islam on Java. The altar is around waist height.

寺外的墙上有精致的石雕,与同时期的Kalasan、 Lumbung、 Sewu 和 Sari寺庙的雕刻相像。

不过这座寺庙的露台却与同一时期建造的其他寺庙的露台不同。

在我到处仔细欣赏这些美丽的石雕时,虔诚的妈妈与小妹已逆时钟环绕寺庙完成了三圈的礼拜。管理员说女的应环绕右边的寺庙,而男的则拜左边的寺庙。

Each of these 40 panels contains a beautiful rendition of a standing male figure, carved in the much the same style as is found at the nearby Buddhist Candis such as Kalasan, Lumbung, Sewu and Sari.
Beautiful figures and window carving
Few carving statue influence by Hindu culture
Few carving statue influence by Hindu culture
Each of these 40 panels contains a beautiful rendition of a standing male figure, carved in the much the same style as is found at the nearby Buddhist Candis such as Kalasan, Lumbung, Sewu and Sari.
Each of these 40 panels contains a beautiful rendition of a standing male figure, carved in the much the same style as is found at the nearby Buddhist Candis such as Kalasan, Lumbung, Sewu and Sari.

距离双寺庙北部几十公尺外,有一座四方高起的平台。

考古研究说千年木制的寺庙已倒塌,现只剩下这个四方祭坛,祭坛上共有三排21尊盘腿而坐的佛像,呈U型排列,中间那排有11尊佛陀石雕像。

3 rolls, total 23 buddha statues
The raised platform of the Plaosan Lor’s center court yard. The three altars collectively currently support a total of 21 sacred images: 11 on the center platform (Buddhas), plus 5 on each of the side platforms.

Jambhala statue in Southern Altar
Jambhala statue in Southern Altar

回来后查看 Candi Plaosan Complex 的资料,才知道我们错过了与北寺一马路之分的Plaosan Kidul (南寺〕。

Plaosan Kidul
Plaosan Kidul, 5 meter in height (picture from internet)

在联合国文教组的资助下,印尼政府正在进行着为期五年的维修工作,我们现在只能从废墟中想象其过去的繁华,可想象这数百座小佛塔在还没倒下前会有多壮观呀!

Candi Ploasan 像一个受了创伤的巨人正在静静地疗养着,有朝一日,当它以复原的英姿重新出现在世人眼前时,它一定会再次受到世人赞叹,重拾昔日光辉的岁月。

如去Prambanan一定要繞過去晃一晃,絕對值得一游。

。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。

印尼游记系列:

  1. 婆罗浮屠
  2. Merapi 火山
  3. 日惹-Candi Kalasan & Candi Sari
  4. 日惹
  5. 雅加达
  6. 吃在印尼
  7. 印尼21-25 Aug 09 图辑